For the week following amalgam removal, body mercury levels increase significantly, depending on protective measures taken, but within two weeks, levels fall significantly. Chronic conditions can worsen temporarily but usually improve if adequate precautions are taken to reduce exposure during removal.
Removal of amalgam fillings result in a significant reduction in body burden and waste product load of mercury. Total reduction in mercury levels in blood and urine is often over 80% within a few months. On average, those with 29 amalgam surfaces excreted over three times more mercury in urine after DMPS challenge than those with 3 amalgam surfaces. Those with 45 amalgam surfaces excreted more than six times as much mercury.
For the case studies of amalgam replacement referenced here, some clinics primarily replaced amalgam fillings using patient protective and supportive measures comparable to Dr. Huggins’ “total dental revision” in which all metals (not just mercury) are replaced with biocompatible alternatives, root canalled teeth are extracted, and cavitations are cleaned. Thousands of documented cases show significant improvement of serious and chronic health problems after removal. These include
- Periodontal (gum) diseases;
- Oral lichen planus and leukoplakia;
- Oral keratosis;
- Immune system and autoimmune problems;
- Multiple chemical sensitivities;
- Chronic headaches/migraines;
- Tachycardia and heart problems;
- Blood conditions;
- Crohn’s disease;
- Gastrointestinal problems;
- Lou Gehrig’s disease/ALS;
- Chronic fatigue syndrome/CFS;
- Memory disorders;
- Autism spectrum disorders;
- Anxiety and mental confusion;
- Susceptibility to infections;
- Antibiotic resistant infection;
- Alopecia/hair loss;
- Sinus problems;
- Tinnitus/ringing ears;
- Hearing loss;
- Chronic eye conditions;
- Vision disturbances;
- Eczema and psoriasis;
- Other skin conditions;
- Hypothroid and autoimmune thyroiditis;
- Urinary/prostate problems;
- Diabetes; and
Chronic health effects are the result of cumulative and synergistic effects of all toxic substances and pathogens one is exposed to. All told, more than 60,000 cases of cured or significant improvements have been documented. These are not isolated cases. One clinic, for instance, reported full recovery or significant improvement:
- In over 90% of cases of metallic taste, tender teeth, bad breath, and mouth sores.
- In over 80% of cases of depression, irrational fear, headaches/migraines, irritability, dizziness, insomnia, bleeding gums, throat irritation, nasal congestion or discharge, muscle tremor, and leg cramps.
- In over 70% of cases of bloating or intestinal cramps, skin reactions, sciatic pain, chest pain, poor memory, urinary disorders, fatigue, poor concentration/ADD, and watery eyes.
- In over 60% of cases of allergies, constipation, muscle fatigue, cold hands/feet, and heart problems.
A Jerome meter was used to measure mercury vapor level in patients’ mouths, and the average was 54.6 micrograms mercury per cubic meter of air. This is far above the government health guidelines for mercury. Some of the above cases used chemical or natural chelation to reduce accumulated mercury body burden after amalgam replacement. Some clinics using DMPS for chelation reported post-replacement improvement in over 80% with chronic health problems. Other clinics reported similar success. The reported recovery rate among those using dentists with special equipment and training in proper and safe amalgam removal was much higher than among those receiving standard treatment: 97% vs. 37-88%.
The Huggins TDR protocol includes testing for levels of galvanic current in teeth that have been restored with metals, removing those with the greatest negative current first. Simply, the most charged teeth release the most metal into the body due to the electrolyte action of saliva. Removing the most charged materials first has been found to improve recovery rate for chronic conditions, such as epilepsy and autoimmune disorders.
With their TDR protocol, the Huggins Clinic has successfully treated more than a thousand patients with chronic autoimmune conditions such as MS, lupus, ALS, ADD/ADHD, and diabetes. About 85% have experienced significant improvement in MS. Compare this with results from a large German study of MS patients that found that the level of success was reached only by those who had problem teeth extracted. Only 16% of those who just had their amalgams replaced without benefit of TDR experienced recovery.
Other cases have similarly found that recovery from serious autoimmune diseases, dementia, or cancer may require more aggressive mercury removal techniques than simple filling replacement. This seems to be due to migration of mercury into the roots and soft tissues—mercury that is not addressed by simple replacement. Several medical studies have shown that this metal has direct routes to the brain and central nervous system.
Among those with chronic immune system problems with related immune antibodies, the types
showing the highest level of antibody reductions after amalgam removal include glomerular basement membrane, thyroglobulin and microsomal thyroid antigens.TDR and metals detox measures have been found to increase T-cells and immune function in AIDS patients.
Swedish researchers have developed a sophisticated test for immune/autoimmune reactions that has proven successful in diagnosing and treating environmentally caused diseases related to mercury and other immunotoxics. Interviews of a large population of Swedish patients who had amalgams removed due to health problems found that virtually all reported significant health improvements—and that these improvements were “permanent.” The duration of the study was 17 years. An even larger study found similar results. For instance, of those with allergies, 89% had significant improvement after amalgam removal.
Testing for Mercury
Clinical studies have found that patch testing is not a good predictor of success of amalgam removal, as many who have tested negative still recovered from chronic conditions after replacement of fillings. Feces is the major path through which mercury is excreted, correlating higher with total body burden than urine or blood, which tell more about recent exposures. Many researchers thus consider feces to be the most reliable indicator of daily exposure level to mercury and other toxins. The average mercury level in the feces of those with amalgam fillings is as much as 1 ppm and about 10 times that of similar groups without such fillings. When multiple fillings are present, values can rise to 10+ ppm and 170 times the exposure, with daily fecal mercury excretion levels ranging from 20 to 200 ug. The saliva test is another good measure for daily mercury exposure.
As mentioned, there is only a weak correlation between blood or urine mercury levels and body burden or level in an organ. Mercury vapor passes rapidly through the blood; its half-life in blood is just 10 seconds. Rather, it accumulates in other parts of the body, such as the brain, kidneys, liver, and hormonal glands.
Urine tests are similarly unreliable for gauging body burden after long term exposure. This is because the kidneys have a wealth of hydroxyl (SH) groups which mercury binds, causing the metal to accumulate and inhibiting excretion. Over time, as damage occurs, they excrete mercury even less efficiently.
Some researchers suggest hair offers a better indicator of mercury body burden than blood or urine, but hair testing is still not totally reliable. It may be a better indicator for organic mercury than inorganic. In the early stages of mercury exposure, before major systemic damage has occurred, researchers and doctors usually see high values for hemoglobin, hemocrit, alkaline phosphatase and lactic dehydroganese. Hair has been found to correlate significantly with both fish consumption and occupational exposure. It can be a good medium for monitoring internal mercury exposure; however, external occupational exposure can also affect hair levels.
One researcher suggests that hair mercury levels greater than 5 ppm are indicative of mercury intoxication. Hair samples from a Madrid population ranged from 1.3 to 92.5 ppm. This study found a significant positive correlation between maternal hair mercury and mercury level in nursing infants. Another found that hair mercury levels did not have a significant correlation with urine mercury or a significant correlation with the number of fillings.
A new test approved by the FDA for diagnosing damage from toxic metals is the fractionated porphyrin test, which measures the amount of damage and identifies the likely source. Mercury blocks enzymes needed to convert some types of porphyrins to hemoglobin and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The pattern of porphyrin levels gives an indication of likely toxic exposure, with high precoproporphyrin—and often coproporphyrin—almost always pointing to mercury toxicity.
Provocation or challenge tests after use of chemical chelators such as DMPS or DMSA also measure mercury body burden effectively. However, high levels of DMPS can be dangerous to some people, especially those with amalgam fillings or allergic to sulfur drugs or sulfites. Many studies using chemical chelators have found post-chelation levels to be poorly correlated with pre-chelation blood or urine levels, but one found a significant correlation when using DMPS.
Challenge tests using DMPS or DMSA appear to have a better correlation with body burden and toxicity symptoms such as concentration, memory and motor deficits, with many studies finding a significant correlation between post-chelation mercury level and the number of amalgam surfaces. On average, those with 29 amalgam surfaces excreted over three times more mercury in urine after DMPS challenge than those with 3 surfaces; those with 45 surfaces excrete over six times as much mercury.
Several doctors use 16 ug/L as the upper limit for mercury after a DMPS challenge and consider anyone with higher levels to have excess body burden, though one study found significant effects at lower levels. Some researchers believe that DMSA has fewer adverse side effects than DMPS and thus prefer to use it for chelation. Some studies have also found DMSA to be more effective at removing mercury from the brain. A common DMSA protocol—developed to avoid redistribution effects—is 50 mg orally every 4 hours for 3 days, followed by 11 off-days. Another chelator, EDTA, forms toxic compounds with mercury and can damage brain function. Generally used to clear clogged arteries, EDTA may need to be restricted in those with high mercury levels.
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been found to be effective at increasing cellular glutathione levels and chelating mercury. Experienced doctors have also found additional zinc to be useful when chelating mercury, as well as counteracting the oxidative damage this metal can do. Zinc induces metallothionein, which protects against oxidative damage and increases protective enzyme activities and glutathione, which in turn tend to inhibit lipid peroxidation and suppress mercury toxicity. Zinc is also a mercury and copper antagonist and can be used to lower copper levels and protect against mercury damage.
Lipoic acid (LA) has been found to dramatically increase excretion of inorganic mercury—over 12 fold—but also to cause decreased excretion of organic mercury and copper. LA seems to have a protective effect regarding lead or inorganic mercury toxicity through its antioxidant properties but should not be used with high copper. It also has been found to have protective effects against cerebral ischemic-reperfusion, excitotoxic amino acid (glutamate) brain injury, mitochondrial dysfunction and diabetic neuropathy. LA and NAC have also been shown to increase glutathione levels and protect against superoxide radical/ peroxynitrite damage, so thus have an additional neuroprotective effect. Other antioxidants such as carnosine, coenzyme Q10, vitamins C and E, gingko biloba, gycnogenol and selenium have also been found protective against degenerative neurological conditions.
Tests Suggested by Drs. Huggins & Levy for Evaluation & Treatment of Mercury Toxicity
- Hair element test
- Low hair mercury level does NOT indicate low body burden.
- Out of normal range indicates likely metals toxicity.
- Blood work: CBC with differential and platelet count
- Blood serum profile
- Urinary mercury (Average level with average exposure to mercury via amalgams is 3-4 ppm. Levels lower than this often mean the person is a poor excretor of mercury, accumulating mercury in the body and likely mercury toxic.)
- Fractionated porphyrins
- Galvanic currents on each tooth
- Patient questionnaires on exposure and symptom history
- Specific gravity of urine as a gauge of pituitary function (A value above 1.022 is normal. A value below 1.008 is consistent with depression and suicidal tendencies.)
Test Results That Can Indicate Mercury/Metals Toxicity
Note: During initial exposure to mercury, the body marshals immune system and other measures to try to deal with the challenge, so many test indicators will be high. After prolonged exposure, measures to combat the challenge decrease, so some test values will show decline. Chronic conditions are common during this phase.
Other potential markers:
- DNA damage or cancer
- Immune reactivity to mercury, nickel, alumninum, et al.
- High hemoglobin, hemocrit, alkaline phosphatase and lactic dehydrogenese (LDA) during initial phases of exposure; low or marginal hemoglobin, hemocrit and oxyhemoglobin during long term chronic fatigue phase.
- Klinghardt D. Migraines, Seizures, and Mercury Toxicity. Future Medicine Publishing; 1997.
- Klinghardt D. A series of fibromyalgia cases treated for heavy metal toxicity: Case report and hypothesis. Journal of Orthopaedic Medicine. 2001; 23: 58-59.
- McNerney RT, et al. Mercury contamination in the dental office: A Review. NYS Dental Journal. 1979: 457-458.
- Gerhard I, et al. Heavy metals and fertility. J Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. 1998; 54: 593-611.
- Hanson M. A hundred and fifty years of misuse of mercury and dental amalgam. 2003. Available at: http://art-bin.com/art/hanson_en.html. Accessed December 30, 2014.
- Larose P. The Effect of Amalgam Removal on 37 Health Symptoms in Humans. Bio-Probe; 1992.
- Zamm AF. Removal of dental mercury: Often an effective treatment for very sensitive patients. J Orthomolecular Med. 1990; 5(53): 138-142.
- Strtebecker P. Mercury Poisoning from Dental Amalgam: A Hazard to the Human Brain. Bio-Probe, Inc; 1987.
- Huggins HA, Levy TE. Uniformed Consent: The Hidden Dangers in Dental Care. Hampton Roads Publishing Company Inc; 1999.
- Huggins H. It’s All in Your Head. 1993.
- Queen S. Chronic Mercury Toxicity: New Hope Against an Endemic Disease. Queen and Co. Health Communications; 1988.
- Perger F. Amalgamtherape in Kompendiu der Regulationspathologie und Therapie. Sonntag Verlag. 1990.
- Friese KH. Amalgamtherapie fur Arzte und Zahnarzte Panta 3. Haug-Verlag. 1992.
- Veron, et al. Amalgam dentaires et allergies. J Biol Buccale. 1986: 83-100.
- Marxkors R. Korrosionserscheinungen an amalgamf llungen und deren auswirkungen auf den menschlichen organismus. Das Deutsche Zahnrztebl. 1970; 24: 53-117.
- Campbell ME, Godfrey M. Confirmation of mercury retention and toxicity using DMPS provocation. J of Advancement in Medicine. 1994; 7(1).
- Godfrey ME. Chronic ailments related to amalgams. J Adv Med. 1990; 3: 247.
- Katsunuma, et al. Anaphylaxis improvement after removal of amalgam fillings. Annals of Allergy. 1990; 64(5): 472-75.
- Drouet M, et al. Is mercury a respiratory tract allergen? Allerg Immunol (Paris). 1990; 22(3): 81.
- Bjorkman L, et al. Mercury in saliva and feces after removal of amalgam fillings. Toxicol App Pharm. 1997; 144(1): 156-62.
- Begerow J, et al. Long-term mercury excretion in urine after removal of amalgam fillings. Int Arch Health. 1994; 66: 209-212.
- Smart ER, et al. Resolution of lichen planus following removal of amalgam restorations. BDJ. 1995; 178(3): 108-112.
- Markow H. Regression from orticaria following dental filling removal. NY State J Med. 1943:1648-1652.
- Sasaki G, et al. Three cases of oral lichenosis caused by metallic dental fillings. J Dermatol. 1996; 12: 890- 892.
- Bratel J, et al. Effect of replacement of dental amalgam on OLR. Journal of Dentistry. 1996; 24(1-2): 41-45.
- Skoglund. Value of epicutaneous patch testing in patients with oral, mucosal lesions of lichenoid character. Scand J Dent Res. 1994; 102(4): 216-222.
- Ostman PO, et al. Clinical and histologic changes after removal of amalgam. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, & Endodontics. 1996; 81(4): 459-465.
- Godfrey ME. Chronic alilments related to amalgams. J Adv Med. 1990; 3: 247.
- Molin M, et al. Kinetics of mercury in blood and urine after amalgam removal. J Dent Res. 1995; 74: 420.
- Koch P, et al. Oral lichenoid lesions, mercury hypersensitity. Contact Dermatitis. 1995; 33(5): 323-328.
- Freeman S, et al. Oral lichenoid lesions caused by allergy to mercury in amalgam. Contact Dermatitis. 1995; 33(6): 423-7.
- Jolly M, et al. Amalgam related chronic ulceration of oral mucosa. BDJ. 1986; 160: 434-437.
- Lindqvist B, et al. Effects of removing amalgam fillings from patients with diseases affecting the immune system. Med Sci Res. 1996; 24(5): 355-356.
- Ulukapi I. Mercury hypersensitivity from amalgam: Report of case. ASDC J Dent Child. 1995; 62(5): 363-4.
- Barregard L, et al. People with high mercury uptake from their own dental amalgam fillings. Occup Envir Med. 2995; 52: 124-128.
- Langworth S, et al. A case of high mercury exposure from dental amalgam. Eur J Oral Sci. 1996; 104: 320-321.
- Berglund F. Case Reports Spanning 150 years on the Adverse Effects of Dental Amalgam. Orlando, FL: Bio-Probe, Inc; 1995.
- Berglund F. Thrombocitopeny in 2 children after insertion of amalgam restorations. Sammanfattningar Svenska Lakarsallskapets Riksstamma. 1991: 27-29.
- Lichtenberg HJ. Elimination of symptoms by removal of dental amalgam from mercury poisoned patients. J Orthomol Med. 1993; 8: 145-148.
- Stromberg R, et al. A case of unusually high mercury exposure from amalgam fillings. Tandlakartidningen. 1996; 88(10): 570-572.
- Redhe O, et al. Recovery from ALS after removal of dental amalgam fillings. Int J Risk & Safety in Med. 1994; 4: 229-236.
- Vanacore N, et al. Dirparimento di scienze neurologiche. Univer La Sapienza, Roma, Med Lav. 1995; 86(6): 522-533.
- Seidler A, et al. Possible environmental factors for Parkinson’s disease. Neurology. 1996; 46(5):1275-1284.
- Ohlson, et al. Parkinson’s disease and occupational exposure to mercury. Scand J Of Work Environment Health. 1981; 7(4): 252-256.
- Nylander M, et al. Mercury accumulation in tissues from dental staff and controls. Swed Dent J. 1989; 13: 235-243.
- Godfrey ME. Chronic illness in association with dental amalgam. J Adv Med. 1990; 3: 247-255.
- Hanson M, et al. The dental amalgam issue: A review. Experientia. 1991; 47: 9-22.
- Henriksson E, et al. Healing of lichenoid reactions following removal of amalgam. J Clinical Periodontol. 1995; 22(4): 287-94.
- Siblerud RL, et al. Evidence that mercury from silver fillings may be an etiological factor in multiple sclerosis. Sci Total Environ. 1994; 142(3): 191-205.
- Siblerud RL, Kienholz E. Evidence that mercury from dental amalgam may cause hearing loss in multiple sclerosis patients. J Orthomol Med. 1997; 12(4): 240-4.
- Siblerud RL. A commparison of mental health of multiple sclerosis patients with silver dental fillings and those with fillings removed. Psychol Rep. 1992; 70(3): 1139-51.
- Tanchyk AP. Amalgam removal for treatment of arthritis. Gen Dent. 1994; 42(4): 354.
- Glavinskiaia TA, et al. Complexons in the treatment of lupus erghematousus. Dermatol Venerol. 1980; 12: 24-28.
- Hall G. V-TOX, Mercury levels excreted after Vit C IV as chelator—by number of fillings. Heavy Metal Bulletin. 1996; 3(1): 6-8.
- Tibbling L, et al. Immunolocial and brain MRI changes in patients with suspected metal intoxication. Int J Occup Med Toxicol. 1995; 4(2): 285-294.
- Ellermann-Eriksen S, et al. Effect of mercuric chloride on macrophage- mediated resistance mechinisms against infection. Toxicology. 1994; 93: 269-297.
- Molin M, et al. Mercury in plasma in patients allegedly subject to oral galvanism. Scand J Dent Res. 1987; 95: 328-334.
- Anneroth G, et al. Comprehensive medical examination of patients with alleged adverse effects from dental amalgams. Acta Odontal Scand. 1992; 50(2): 101-11.
- R.Brehler, et al. Mercury sensitization in amalgam fillings. Dtschmed Wochenschr. 1993; 118(13): 451-6.
- Laine J, et al. Resolution of oral lichenoid lesions after replacement of amalgam restorations. Br J Dermatol. 1992; 126(1): 10-15.
- Ibbotson SH, et al. The relevance of amalgam replacement on oral lichenoid reactions. Br J Dermatol. 1996; 134(3): 420-3.
- Klobusch J, Rabe T, Gerhard I, Runnebaum B. Alopecia and environmental pollution. Klinisches Labor. 1992; 38: 469- 476.
- Calsakis LJ, et al. Alergy to silver amalgams. Oral Surg. 1978; 46: 371-5.
- Langworth S, et al. A case of high mercury exposurte from dental amalgam. Eur J Oral Sci. 1996; 104: 320-321.
- Warren T. Beating Alzheimer’s. Avery Publishing Group; 1991.
- Alzheimer’s Therapies. Available at: http://www.whale.to/m/alzheimer.html. Accessed December 30, 2014.
- Ziff MF, et al. A persuasive new look at heart disease as it relates to mercury. J of American College of Cardiology. 1999; 33(6): 1578-1583.
- Ziff, M.F. Documented clinical side effects to dental amalgams. Adv Dent Res. 1992; 1(6): 131-13.
- Ziff, S. Dentistry Without Mercury. 8th ed. Bio-Probe, Inc; 1996.
- Siblerul RL. Health effects after dental amalgam removal. J Orthomol Med. 1990; 5: 95-106.
- Zamm AV. Removal of dental mercury: often an effective treatment for the very sensitive patient. J Orthomol Med. 1990; 5: 138-142.
- Hovmand O. Oral galvanisme-erfaringer fra praxis. Tandlaegebladet. 1987; 91: 473-476.
- Daunderer. Improvement of nerve and immunological damages after amalgam removal. Amer J Probiotic Dentistry and Medicine. 1991.
- Daunderer M. Handbuchder Amalgamvergiftung. Landsberg: Ecomed Verlag; 1998.
- Culter AH. Amalgam illness diagnosis and rreatment. Available at: http://www.noamalgam.com. Accessed December 30, 2014.
- Lindforss H, Marqvardsen O, Olsson S, Henningsson M. Effekter påh älsan efter avl ägsnandet av amalgamfyllningar (Effects on health after removal of amalgam fillings). Tandl ä Kartidn. 1994; 86(4): 205-21.
- Olsson G, Lindh, U. Veränderung des allgemeinen Gesundheitszustand nach Amalgamentfernung (Changes in general health after amalgam removal). GZM, Ganzheitl Zahnmed. 1997; 2(1): 22-28.
- Strö R, Langworth S. Förbättrashälsan efter borttagning av amalgam? (Does health improve after removal of amalgam?). Tandl ä Kartidn. 1998; 90(9): 23-29.
- Klock, B, Blomgren, J, Ripa, U, Andrup B. Effekt av amalgamavl ägsnandep åpsommisst änker att delider ellerharliditav amalgamf örgiftning. (Effect of amalgam removal in patients who suspect amalgam poisoning). Tandl ä Kartidningen. 1989; 81: 1297-1302.
- Mörnstad H, Teivens A, Wänman A. Sjukdomsbild ochattityder till amalgam. En enk ätstudie bland medlemmar i. Tandvårdsskadef örbundet. Health status and attitudes to amalgam. A questionnaire to members of the Dental Patient Organization). Tandl ä Kartidningen. 1994; 86: 196-204.
- Bigazzi PE. Autoimmunity and heavy metals. Lupus. 1994; 3: 449-453.
- Hamre HJ. Mercury from dental amalgam and chronic fatigue syndrome. CFIDS Chronicle. 1994: 44-47.
- Stejskal VDM, Danersund A, Lindvall A, et al. Amalgam replacement in CFS patients. Neuroendocrinology Letters. 1999; 20: 289-98.
- Iyer K, et al. Mercury poisoning in a dentist. Arch Neuro. 1976; 33: 788-790.
- Omura Y, et al. Role of mercury in resistant infections and recovery after Hg detox with cilantro. Acupuncture Electro-Theraputics Research. 1995; 20(3): 195-229.
- Eggleston DW. Effect of dental amalgam and nickel alloys on T-lympocytes. J Prosthet Dent. 1984; 51(5): 617-623.
- Hua MS, Huang CC, Yang YJ. Chronic elemental mercury intoxication. Brain Inj. 1996; 10(5): 377-84.
- Huggins Applied Healing. Multiple sclerosis. Available at: http://www.hugginsappliedhealing.com/ms.php. Accessed December 30, 2014.
- Huggins HA, Levy TE. Cerebrospinal fluid protein changes in MS after dental amalgam removal. Alternative Med Rev. 1998; 3(4): 295-300.
- Siblerud R. Do amalgam fillings influence manic depression? J Orthomol Medicine. 1998.
- Larsen H. Amalgam fillings. Available at: http://www.yourhealthbase.com/amalgams.html. Accessed December 30, 2014.
- Klinghardt D, Mercola J, Mercury toxicity and systemic elimination agents. J Nutritional and Environmental Medicine. 2001; 11: 53-62.
- Oliveira EM, et al. Mercury effects on the contractile activity of the heart muscle. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1994; 1: 86-91.
- Siblerud RL. The relationship between mercury from dental amalgam and the cardiovascular system. Science of the Total Envir. 1990; 99(1-2): 23-35.
- Stejskal VDM, et al. Mercury-specific lymphocytes: An indication of mercury allergy in man. J Clinical Immunology. 1996; 16(1): 31-40.
- Zinecker S. Amalgam: Quecksilberdamfe der Kassenarzt. Praxiproblem Amalgam Der Allgermeinarzt. 1997; 17(11):1215-1221.
- Siblerud RL. Relationship between dental amalgam and health. Toxic Substances Journal. 1990; 10: 425-444.
- Engel P. Beobachtungen uber die gesundheit vor und nach amalgamentfernug. Schweiz Monatschr Zuhbmed. 1998; 108(8).
- Adams CR, et al. Hg & ALS. JAMA. 1983; 250(5): 642-5.
- Tosti A, et al. Contact stomatitis. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 1997; 16(4): 314-9.
- Nakada T, et al. Patch test materials for mercury allergic contact dermatitis. Dermatitis. 1997; 36(5): 237-9.
- Guttman-Yassky E, Weltfriend S, Bergman R. Resolution of orofacial granulomatosis with amalgam removal. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2003; 17(3): 344-7.
- Clauw DJ. The pathogenesis of chronic pain and fatigue syndromes: Fibromyalgia. Med Hypothesis. 1995; 44: 369-78.
- Hanson S, Fibromyalgia, glutamate, and mercury. Heavy Metal Bulletin. 1999; 4: 5-6.
- Schaeffer M, et al. Risikofaktor Amalgam-Ein Problemstoff, Schriftenreihe mweltmedizin. Forum Medizin Verlagsgesellschaft. 1996.
- Nixon DE, Mussmann GV, Moyer TP. Inorganic, organic, and total mercury in blood and urine. J Anal Toxicol. 1996; 10(1): 17-22.
- Schweinsberg F. Risk estimation of mercury intake from different sources. Toxicol Lett. 1994; 72: 45-51.
- Pzheusskaia LD. Disintoxication therapy of patients with nonspecific inflammatory diseases of the female genital organs. Akush Ginekol. 1977; 4: 30-34.
- Tapparo G. Toxische untersunchungenzu amalgam. Die Zahn Arztwoche. 1992.
- Gerhard I. Amalgam aus gynakologischer Sicht. Der Frauenarzt. 1995; 36(6): 627-28.
- Danersund A, Lindvall A, Hudecek R, Nordman V, Yaqob A, et al. Metal- specific memory lymphoctes: biomarkers of sensitivity in man. Neuroendocrinology Letters. 1999.
- Prochazkova J, Sterzl I, Kucerova H, Bartova J, Stejskal VD; The beneficial effect of amalgam replacement on health in patients with autoimmunity. Neuroendocrinology Letters. 2004; 25(3): 211-8.
- Sterzl I, Prochazkova J, Stejaskal VDM. et al. Mercury and nickel allergy: risk facotrs in fatigue and autoimmunity. Neuroendocrinology Letters. 1999; 20: 221-228.
- Stejskal VDM, Danersund A, Lindvall A, Hudecek R, Nordman V, Yaqob A, et al. Metal- specific memory lymphocytes: biomarkers of sensitivity in man. Neuroendocrinology Letters. 1999; 20: 289-98.
- Melchart D, Wuhr E, Weidenhammer W, Kremers L. A multicenter survey of amalgam fillings and subjective complaints in non-selected patients in the dental practice. Eur J Oral. 1998; 106: 770-77.
- Melchart D, Vogt S, Köhler W, et al. Treatment of health complaints attributed to amalgam. J Dent Res. 2008; 87(4): 349-353.
- Sterzl I, Fucikova T, Zamrazil V. The fatigue syndrome in autoimmune thyroiditis with polyglandular activation of autoimmunity. Vnitrni Lekarstvi. 1998; 44: 456-60.
- Sterzl I, Hrda P, Prochazkova J, Bartova J. Reactions to metals in patients with chronic fatigue and autoimmune endocrinopathy. Vnitrni Lekarstvi. 1999; 45(9): 527-31.
- Lonescu G. Schwermetallbelastung bei atopischer. Dermatitis und Psoriasis. Biol Med. 1996; 2: 65-68.
- Godfrey ME. Candida, dysbiosis and amalgam. J Adv Med. 1996; 9(2).
- Romani L. Immunity to candida albicans: Th1, Th2 cells and beyond. Curr Opin Microbiol. 1999; 2(4): 363-7.
- Zamm AV. Candida albicans therapy: Dental mercury removal, an effective adjunct. J Orthmol Med. 1986; 1(4): 261-5.
- Stejskal J, Stejskal V. The role of metals in autoimmune diseases and the link to neuroendocrinology. Neuroendocrinology Letters. 1999; 20: 345-358.
- Wehner-Caroli J, Scherwitz C, Schweinsberg F, Fierlbeck G. Exacerbation of pustular psoriasis in mercury poisoning. Hautarzt. 1994; 45(10): 708-10.
- Adams CR, et al. Mercury intoxication simulating ALS. JAMA. 1983; 250(5): 642-5.
- Barber T. Inorganic mercury intoxification similar to ALS. J of Occup Med. 1978; 20: 667-9.
- Kidd RF. Results of dental amalgam removal and mercury detoxification. Alternative Therapies, Health Med. 2000; 6(4): 49-55.
- Blumer W, Mercury toxicity and dental amalgam fillings. J Adv Med. 1998; 11(3): 219.
- van Benschoten MM. Acupoint energetics of mercury toxicity and amalgam removal with case studies. American Journal of Acupuncture. 1994; 22(3): 251-262.
- William P Jr. The shocking tooth about trigeminal neuralgia. NEJM. 2000; 342: 2003.
- Hugoson A. Results obtained from patients referred for the investigation of complaints related to oral galvanism. Swed Dent J. 1986; 10: 15-28.
- Muller AW, Van Loon LA, Davidson CL. Electrical potentials of restorations in subjects without oral complaints. J Oral Rehabil. 1990; 17: 419-24.
- Raue H. Resistance to therapy: Think of tooth fillings. Medical Practice. 1980; 32(72): 2303- 2309.
- Lindh U, Hudecek R, Danersund A, Eriksson S, Lindvall A. Removal of dental amalgam and other metal alloys supported by antioxidant therapy alleviates symptoms and improves quality of life in patients with amalgam-associated ill health. Neuroendocrinology Letters. 2002; 23(5-6): 459-82.